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    学术论文
Andreas Gruschke’s three weeks field work in Tibetan rural areas
发布日期:2014/1/9  点击次数:1300


From May 30 to June 22, our institute's Prof. Andreas Gruschke went to Tibetan rural areas in Sichuan, Qinghai and the TAR in order to do field work. The field trip led him from Aba prefecture's Xiaojin county to Danba, Daofu, Kangding, Yajiang, Litang, Baiyu, Dege and Serxu counties of Ganzi prefecture in Sichuan. It was continued to southern Qinghai and north-central Tibet.
The major focus of Prof. Gruschke’s research there lies on the partially deficient acceptance of settlement projects. Notably pastoralist settlements (定居点) sometimes face a considerable number of households who leave their new homes after a few years. While some of them give their homes up since the basis for their livelihood - pastures for their animals - are too far from the new settlements, others name reasons like the lack of income opportunities and rising cost of living as hardships in their new homeplaces.
A comparative perspective was offered by the interviews Prof. Gruschke made in settlement and resettlement villages of neighbouring Qinghai province. The situation there is different, as local cadre said, since the earthquake relief in Yushu addressed even more rural people than the state programs for settlement and resettlement in the area. Still, in places like Gaduo Xiang 称多县尕朵乡, for instance, field evidence made clear that projects have serious shortcomings since more than half of the houses in the oversized settlement obviously remain empty.
The specific circumstances under which pastoralist households give up their participation in otherwise successful projects needs serious examination. To answer this research question will not only deepen scholarly understanding of nomadic societies, but also allow for adapting existing state projects and make improvements that are designed to enable households reconsidering their participation in the state projects. Preliminary findings make Prof. Andreas Gruschke state that the best way to get better outcomes from those state interventions would be to introduce new ways of monitoring. This necessarily includes more detailed working out of what are the projects’ actual specific targets, and notably of how those targets can be reached by which means. In interviews with local administrators, Prof. Andreas Gruschke was told that the implementation of measures is apparently lacking detailed explanations of how those measures should actually attain the goals expressed in the general description of the projects. As the state asuggests that the local situation needs to be considered and therefore policy adaptations made, village chiefs and community administrators in Sichuan, Qinghai and the TAR all felt it be good if the village level would be better included in the planning stage and during the formulation of targets for such projects. In several villages, people also expressed that projects sometimes are implemented in an unnecessary hurry. This makes them less acceptable for many households.
The various opinions make clear that the issues in the settlement projects are varied and complex and no simple answers can be given. Prof. Gruschke therefore plans to make further investigations to get deeper insights. These issues also need to be related to the wider scope of urbanisation as it is discussed by policy-makers and academicians in China. For that reason, we eventually exchanged views about issues of urbanisation in Tibet and elsewhere with some scholars of TASS and Tibet University in Lhasa at the end of his field trip.

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